Text: T0293; 大方廣佛華嚴經


Identifier T0293 [T]
Title 大方廣佛華嚴經 [T]
Date [None]
Translator 譯 *Prajña, 般若 [T]
Author *Prajña, 般若 [Tsukinowa 1954]

There may be translations for this text listed in the Bibliography of Translations from the Chinese Buddhist Canon into Western Languages. If translations are listed, this link will take you directly to them. However, if no translations are listed, the link will lead only to the head of the page.

There are resources for the study of this text in the SAT Daizōkyō Text Dabatase (Saṃgaṇikīkṛtaṃ Taiśotripiṭakaṃ).


Preferred? Source Pertains to Argument Details


[T]  T = CBETA [Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association]. Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經. Edited by Takakusu Junjirō 高楠順次郎 and Watanabe Kaigyoku 渡邊海旭. Tokyo: Taishō shinshū daizōkyō kankōkai/Daizō shuppan, 1924-1932. CBReader v 5.0, 2014.

Entry author: Michael Radich


  • Title: 大方廣佛華嚴經
  • People: *Prajña, 般若 (translator 譯)
  • Identifier: T0293


[Tsukinowa 1954]  Tsukinowa Kenryū 月輪 賢隆. “Hannya sanzō no hon’yaku ni taisuru higi 般若三蔵の翻經に対する批議.” IBK 4, no.2 (1954): 434-443. — 434, 443

According to Tsukinowa, it is recorded that Trepiṭaka Prajña/Prajñā 般若三藏 translated nine titles in seventy-five juan scriptures, and also composed a Banre sanzang gu jin fanyi tu ji 般若三藏古今翻譯圖紀 in two juan. However, Tsukinowa states, probably the Gu jin fanyi tu ji 古今翻譯圖紀 was written by somebody else, and Prajña’s true translation work most likely only comprises the version of the “Heart” Sūtra 般若心經 in one juan T253, co-translated with Liyan 利言 and others. Tsukinowa believes that almost all other titles ascribed to Prajñā were his own compositions, because 1) no original texts of his works have been found; 2) no alternate translation have been found in Chinese nor in Tibetan; 3) none of those works are cited in Indian texts; and 4) the contents and style of those works of his are too peculiar to be proper translation (一二七/434). This entry lists all of the extant texts affected by Tsukinowa’s assertion, that is, all texts ascribed to Prajña except T253. See also separate CBC entries for notes on Tsukinowa’s more detailed analysis of some of the individual scriptures on this list.

Entry author: Atsushi Iseki



[Tsukinowa 1954]  Tsukinowa Kenryū 月輪 賢隆. “Hannya sanzō no hon’yaku ni taisuru higi 般若三蔵の翻經に対する批議.” IBK 4, no.2 (1954): 434-443. — 442-443

Tsukinowa states that some parts of the *Buddhāvataṃsaka 大方廣佛華嚴經 T293 were added sometime after its first production. He believes that Prajñā/Prajña himself added those elements, which include:

A detailed explanation of the ālayavijñāna 阿頼耶識 in juan 6 and 10. These passages are unique to T293, that is, unparalleled in Sanskrit, Tibetan, and other Chinese translations;

The healing method 療病法 of Samantanetra 普眼長者 in juan 11;

A lengthy lament from King Anala in juan 11 and 12;

Fifty-seven stanzas recited by Prince Weidezhu 威德主太子 on the hindrances of women 女人の障;

The explanation of the twelve dhūta 十二頭陀 from the end of juan 23 to the half of 24; and

Admonitions 教誡 of Mañjuśrī 文殊 (Taishō 837a-838a) in juan 28 (442-443).

Tsukinowa also discusses an explanation of Samantabhadra’s Ten Great Vows普賢十大願 appearing in juan 40 of T293. He states that the Encomium on [Samantabhadra’s] Vow to Practice 行願讚 was added to the end of the *Buddhāvataṃsaka in the extant Sanskrit and Tibetan versions, but originally was an independent text, as Buddhabhadra 覺賢 translated it as a completely different text, the Bhadracarīpraṇidhāna 文殊師利發願經 T296. Tsukinowa argues that the explanation of the Encomium was therefore composed after the Encomium was added to the *Buddhāvataṃsaka, and proposes that it was also added to the text by Prajña himself. Tsukinowa also notes that this explanation reorders the stanzas of the Encomium, moving nine stanzas fromm the middle to the end (443).

In a word, T293 feigns the impression of a new translation by adding material to the text, but is based more on T279 than on the original Sanskrit. For a clear example, verses at the end of juan 29 are actually from the end verse of T279, but are not included in Sanskrit or Tibetan (443).

Entry author: Atsushi Iseki