Text: T397(12); 無盡意品; Akṣayamati-nirdeśa


Identifier T397(12) [Ono and Maruyama 1933-1936]
Title 無盡意品; Akṣayamati-nirdeśa [Ono and Maruyama 1933-1936]
Date [None]
Co-translator 共譯 Baoyun, 寶雲; Zhiyan, 智嚴 (Liu Song) [Ōno 1954]
Translator 譯 Baoyun, 寶雲; Zhiyan, 智嚴 (Liu Song) [T]


Preferred? Source Pertains to Argument Details


[T]  T = CBETA [Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association]. Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經. Edited by Takakusu Junjirō 高楠順次郎 and Watanabe Kaigyoku 渡邊海旭. Tokyo: Taishō shinshū daizōkyō kankōkai/Daizō shuppan, 1924-1932. CBReader v 5.0, 2014.


Entry author: Michael Radich



[Ono and Maruyama 1933-1936]  Ono Genmyō 小野玄妙, Maruyama Takao 丸山孝雄, eds. Bussho kaisetsu daijiten 佛書解說大辭典. Tokyo: Daitō shuppan, 1933-1936 [縮刷版 1999]. — s.v., Vol. 7, 477-483 (Hasuzawa Seijun 蓮澤成淳)

The Wujinyi pin 無盡意品 (Akṣayamati-nirdeśa) is shown in the Taishō as translated by Zhiyan 智嚴 and Baoyun 寶雲. The text was not included in the version of the Saṃnipāta 大集經 (= T397) that Sengyou actually saw. However, Sengyou does lists a Wujinyi pin 無盡意品 as the twelfth part 十二分 of the Saṃnipāta, and so *Dharmakṣema's 曇無讖 version of the Wujinyi pin must have existed, become lost, and been replaced by a different version. Hasuzawa maintains that it is questionable that this added version was Zhiyan 智嚴 and Baoyun's 寶雲 translation. In order to make this claim, Hasuzawa summarizes the content of the catalogues on this title and a related one as follows:

CSZJJ 出三藏記集:
CSZJJ lists the Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 (4 juan) and an Achamo jing 阿差末經 (4 juan) as translations by Dharmarakṣa 法護. It also lists the Wujinyi jing and the Achamo jing separately in its Recompilation of the Catalogue of Alternate Sūtra Translations 新集異出經錄 as follows:

Wujinyi jing 無盡意經:

Wujinyi 無盡意, Dharmarakṣa’s translation (4 juan)
Wujinyi 無盡意, Zhu Fajuan's 竺法眷 translation (10 juan)
Daji hou Wujinyi 大集後無盡意, *Dharmakṣema's 曇無讖 translation (4 juan).

Sengyou states that these are alternate tranalations of the same text.

Amocha jing 阿差末經:

Amocha 阿差末, Zhi Qian's 支謙 translation (2 juan)
Amocha 阿差末, Dharmarakṣa’s translation (4 juan)

Hasuzawa points out that it is clear that Sengyou thought that Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 and Amocha jing 阿差末經 are different texts.

Fajing’s Zhongjing mulu:
Fajing’s Zhongjing mulu lists Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 and Amocha jing 阿差末經 as alternate titles of the same text. Both are shown as Dharmarakṣa’s translations. Fajing also shows that there was a Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 translated by Fajuan 法眷 (10 juan).

KYL 開元錄:
KYL also regards Wujinyin jing 無盡意經 and Amocha jing 阿差末經 as alternate titles of the same text. It lists the different versions as follows:

Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 (6 juan): also called Amocha jing 阿差末經, from the Saṃnipāta 大集經, translated by Zhiyan and Baoyun 智嚴 and 寶雲, the fourth translation
Amocha jing 阿差末經: also called Wujinyi jing 無盡意經, 4 or 5 juan, translated by Dharmarakṣa, the third translation

KYL states that there were five alternate translations of this text, three of which were lost by Zhisheng's time. Those three versions are listed as:

Amocha jing 阿差末經 (4 juan): translated by *Vighna of the Wu 呉維祇難
Amocha jing 阿差末經 (4 juan): translated by Zhi Qian
Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 (10 juan): translated by Fajuan 法眷

Hasuzawa claims that it is thus clear that CSZJJ is incorrect in listing the Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 and the Amocha jing 阿差末經 as different texts.

Hasuzawa also points out that there are a numbere of the alternate translations of this text, as it is supposed to have been translated by Dharmarakṣa, Fajuan, *Dharmakṣema, Zhi Qian, Zhiyan and Baoyun, and *Vighna. Among these translations, Hasuzawa states that *Dharmakṣema's and *Vighna's are not relevant in considering the issue of the Wujinyi pin of the Saṃnipāta. This is because *Dharmakṣema’s translation is mentioned only in CSZJJ and it is unlikely that *Dharmakṣema translated the same text twice, once as part of the Saṃnipāta again as an independent text. Regarding *Vighna's translation, that text has been lost for a long time.

Hasuzawa maintains that it is doubtful if the record of Zhiyan and Baoyun's translation is reliable, because it is not listed in CSZJJ and other catalogues of the Sui 隋 period, although it appears in LDSBJ 三寶記, DTNDL 内典錄, GJYJTJ 古今譯經圖紀, DZKZM 大周刊定衆經目錄 and others. In contrast, Fajuan's translation is listed in CSZJJ, Fajing’s Zhongjing mulu, and also in DTNDL. The text is recorded as lost in Yancong 彦悰錄, Jingtai 靜泰錄 and KYL. Dharmarakṣa’s translation is extant today as an independent text, and so we know that it is not the Wujinyi pin of T397. Thus, Hasuzawa maintains that the Wujinyi pin in T397 is probably Fajuan's translation. He infers that when Fajuan's translation appears in the catalogues as a separate text from T397, it was probably because the ascription was not recorded clearly.

Entry author: Michael Radich


  • Title: 無盡意品; Akṣayamati-nirdeśa
  • People: Fajuan 法眷 (translator 譯)
  • Identifier: T397(12)


[Sakaino 1935]  Sakaino Kōyō 境野黄洋. Shina Bukkyō seishi 支那佛教精史. Tokyo: Sakaino Kōyō Hakushi Ikō Kankōkai, 1935. — 589-592

The Akṣayamati-nirdeśa 無盡意菩薩品 T397(12) was initially missing from the *Mahāsaṃnipāta 大集經, and was added later. Its tone and vocabulary are not at all that of *Dharmakṣema. Different catalogues record that there existed a text of this title ascribed to Zhiyan 智嚴 and Baoyun 寶雲, but CSZJJ does not include it among their works. Sakaino points out that CSZJJ records a Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 in four juan and an Achamo jing 阿差末經 in four juan, both of which titles should correspond to *Akṣayamati, and ascribes both to Dharmarakṣa, although they are the same text, and the 阿差末經 should be excised.

We also have records of another Wujinyi jing 無盡意經, ascribed to Fajuan 法眷. Five titles are ascribed to Fajuan, but all of them were missing at the time of CSZJJ, and Sengyou did not directly see any of them. Four of the five appear to be related to the *Mahasaṃnipāta 大集經, judging from the titles. Sakaino asserts, agreeing with Matsumono Bunzaburō 松本文三郎 (in Butten hihyō ron 佛典批評論) that, although it is far from certain, the Wujinyi jing ascribed to Fajuan is likely to be the same Wujinyi pusa pin 無盡意菩薩品 that was added to the Mahāsaṃnipāta, viz., T397(12), as it is the only record about such a title that is reasonably credible.

Entry author: Atsushi Iseki



[Yoritomi 1979]  Yoritomi Motohiro 頼富本宏. Chūgoku Mikkyō no kenkyū 中国密教の研究. Tokyo: Daitō Shuppansha, 1979. — 41-53.

Yoritomi regards the Akṣayamati-nirdeśa 無盡意菩薩品/無盡意菩薩經 T397(12) as the source text for portions of the Dasheng liqu liu poluomiduo jing 大乘理趣六波羅蜜多經 T261 (e.g., Chapter 10, the Banre boluomiduo pin 般若波羅蜜多品, etc.).

Entry author: Atsushi Iseki



[Ōno 1954]  Ōno Hōdō 大野法道. Daijō kai kyō no kenkyū 大乗戒経の研究. Tokyo: Risōsha 理想社, 1954. — 290-292

Ōno states that the ten-chapter version of the *Mahāsaṃnipāta 大方等大集經 T397 in twenty-four juan seen by Sengyou (eleven chapters, with the sixth missing) should have been the version translated by *Dharmakṣema (290). The Ākāśagarbha-sūtra 虛空藏品 T397(8) and Akṣayamati-nirdeśa 無盡意品 T397(12) were therefore added before the Liang 梁 period. For Ōno, the addition of the Akṣayamati-nirdeśa (無盡意菩薩經) in four juan is the starting point of the first phase of Chinese development of the Mahāsaṃnipata. T397(12), like T197(8), takes the form of an independent scripture, and contain terms not used by *Dharmakṣema.

The Akṣayamati-nirdeśa has been variously ascribed to (1) Zhiyan 智嚴 and Baoyun 寶雲, (2) to Dharmarakṣa, and (3) to Fajuan 法眷. On the basis of phraseology, Ōno claims that the ascription to Zhiyan and Baoyun, which is followed in the Taishō, is the most plausible. However, Ōno points out that this ascription was first given in LDSBJ, citing the Li Kuo catalogue, and that LDSBJ was subsequently followed by DTNDL, DZKZM, and KYL; this title is not listed in CSZJJ.

The ascription to Dharmarakṣa is given in Fajing, Yancong, and Jingtai. Ōno maintains that this ascription derives from a listing of a Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 in four juan in Dao’an’s catalogue, and that this title in Dao’an refers to the version of the Akṣayamati-nirdeśa entitled Achamo jing 阿差末經 T403, not to T397(12). Nonetheless, it is striking that Sengyou juxtaposes in his section on Dharmarakṣa a Wujinyi jing 無盡意經 carried over from Dao’an [i.e., the阿差末經] and a separate Achamo jing 阿差末經 citing Bielu 別錄 (T2145 [LV] 7c13, 8c7). This confused Fajing, who writes as if Dharmarakṣa translated two different texts. Ōno points out that in any case, the vocabulary of T397(12) is not of the W. Jin, but of the Nanbeichao 南北朝 period.

The third ascription to Fajuan came from the fact that a Wujinyi jing in five juan is listed among Fajuan’s works in CSZJJ. However, all scriptures ascribed to 法眷 are recorded as missing, and were circulated only in part of China (292).

Entry author: Atsushi Iseki



[CSZJJ]  Sengyou 僧祐. Chu sanzang ji ji (CSZJJ) 出三藏記集 T2145.
[Hu gong lu CSZJJ]  Hu gong lu 護公錄, as cited in CSZJJ 出三藏記集 T2145. — T2145 (LV) 63b11-12

In a "note/record" on the *Gagaṇagañja-paripr̥cchā and three versions of the Akṣayamati-nirdeśa as included in the *Mahāsaṃnipāta 大集虛空藏無盡意三經記, Sengyou cites the Hu gong lu 護公錄 ("catalogue [of texts? by] Sir Hu" = Dharmarakṣa), saying that he is unsure whether the Akṣakamati 無盡意經 in four fascicles reported in (an?) unnamed "catalogue(s?)" is the same as a text with the same details that the Hu gong lu reports: 但護公錄復出無盡意經四卷。未詳與此本同異.

Entry author: Michael Radich



[Fei 597]  Fei Changfang 費長房. Lidai sanbao ji (LDSBJ) 歷代三寶紀 T2034.
[GSZ]  Huijiao 慧晈. Gaoseng zhuan 高僧傳.
[CSZJJ]  Sengyou 僧祐. Chu sanzang ji ji (CSZJJ) 出三藏記集 T2145.
[Lettere 2020]  Lettere, Laura. "The Missing Translator: A Study of the Biographies of the Monk Baoyun 寶雲." Rivista degli studi orientali, nuova serie 93, no. 1-2 (2020): 259-274.


"This study examines the biography of the monk Baoyun 寶雲 (376?-449) and lists all the titles of the translation projects in which Baoyun was involved. By comparing the information provided by different Buddhist catalogues, several discrepancies between the information on Baoyun provided by Buddhist bibliographer Sengyou 僧祐 (445-518) and by later accounts became evident. This study contextualizes the life of Baoyun in a broader historical perspective and presents the life of a monk who was a companion of Faxian 法顯 (336?-422) in his famous journey to the west, fluent in Indic languages, and a proficient translator."

Lettere argues that we can see a gradual process by which the true scope of Baoyun's activities as a translator, originally represented rather clearly by Sengyou and the sources he collects (CSZJJ), was already diminished or undermined by Huijiao (GSZ), Fei Zhangfang (LCSBJ), and Fajing; and also seems to have suffered from being overshadowed by the reputation and legends that accrued to the personality of Faxian. In the course of her treatment of biographical and other external sources on Baoyun (CSZJJ, GSZ, and documents like prefaces), Lettere notes evidence that Baoyun might have been the principal translator for the following works:

T192 (Lettere holds unequivocally that this work is "erroneously attributed to Dharmakṣema/Tan Wuchen 曇無讖", following Willemen 2009 [in error this reference is given as Chen Jinhua]: xiv-xvi);

a "new Sukhāvatī" 新無量壽 [sic, for *Amitāyus] [Lettere's citation of studies by Nogami 1950, Gotō 2006, 2007, and Nattier 2003 implies that she identifies this title with T360 -- MR];

with Zhiyan, according to Sengyou's CSZJJ, three titles: the Puyao jing 普耀經, the Guangbo yanjing jing 廣博嚴淨經, and the Si tianwang jing 四天王經 [cf. for the last two titles respectively Avaivartikacakra 廣博嚴淨經 T268, and Si tianwang jing 四天王經 T590 -- MR];

the Śrīmālādevīsiṃhanāda 勝鬘經 [T353];

the Za’ahan jing 雜阿含經 (*Saṃyuktāgama) and the Fagu jing 法鼓經 [Lettere again does not go into the problem of identification with extant texts, but cf. Saṃyuktāgama T99 and the *Mahābherīhāraka-sūtra T270 -- MR];

a Mahāparinirvāṇa in six fascicles 六卷泥洹 [cf. T7 -- MR].

[To this list we should add the Laṅkāvatāra T670; Lettere omits to list it, but cf. 後於丹陽郡譯出勝鬘楞伽經, GSZ T2059 (L) 344b3, which in fact comprises two titles, the Śrīmālādevī and the Laṅkāvatāra; cf. Lettere 265 n. 9 -- MR.]

Lettere also notes evidence that Baoyun may have composed a lost travelogue of his journeys, entitled Youlü waiguo 遊履外國.

In LDSBJ, two titles are added to Baoyun's credit; Fufa zang jing 付法藏經 [cf. T2058] and Jingdu sanwei jing 淨度三昧經 [cf. X15]; and an *Akṣayamatinirdeśa 無盡意菩薩 to the joint translatorship of Baoyun and Zhiyan [cf. T397(12)]. Lettere notes that the poor reputation of Fei as a cataloguer makes these ascriptions less plausible.

Entry author: Michael Radich