Text: T0768; 三慧經


Identifier T0768 [T]
Title 三慧經 [T]
Date 涼 [T]
Translator 譯 Anonymous (China), 失譯, 闕譯, 未詳撰者, 未詳作者, 不載譯人 [T]

There may be translations for this text listed in the Bibliography of Translations from the Chinese Buddhist Canon into Western Languages. If translations are listed, this link will take you directly to them. However, if no translations are listed, the link will lead only to the head of the page.

There are resources for the study of this text in the SAT Daizōkyō Text Dabatase (Saṃgaṇikīkṛtaṃ Taiśotripiṭakaṃ).


Preferred? Source Pertains to Argument Details


[T]  T = CBETA [Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association]. Taishō shinshū daizōkyō 大正新脩大藏經. Edited by Takakusu Junjirō 高楠順次郎 and Watanabe Kaigyoku 渡邊海旭. Tokyo: Taishō shinshū daizōkyō kankōkai/Daizō shuppan, 1924-1932. CBReader v 5.0, 2014.

Entry author: Michael Radich



[Hayashiya 1941]  Hayashiya Tomojirō 林屋友次郎. Kyōroku kenkyū 経録研究. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten, 1941. — 992-994

Hayashiya's summary of the content of the catalogues on this and related titles is as follows:

The recompiled catalogue of variant translations from the Liang country 新集安公涼土異經録 (Sengyou's reconstitution of a portion of Dao'an's catalogue):
A San hui jing 三慧經 is listed in this catalogue, and was already lost at the time of Sengyou.

CSZJJ 出三藏記集:
However, Sengyou also listed the same title, San hui jing, as an extract 抄, in his catalogue of assorted anonymous scriptures 失譯雜經錄. Hayashiya suggests that the two San hui jing are likely to be the same text, but Sengyou listed them separately just in case the lost version in the recompiled catalogue of variant translations from the Liang country 新集安公涼土異經録 is the complete version, while the one in his catalogue of assorted anonymous scriptures is recorded as an extract.

Fajing’s Zhongjing mulu and Yancong’s Zhongjing mulu:
Fajing listed only one San hui jing. Yancong did the same, listing the extract version only.

The Taishō features the San hui jing 三慧經 T768. This text does not contain some phrases unique to sūtras, e.g., 如是我聞 and so on. Hayashiya maintains that this T768 is highly likely to be the extract version of the San hui jing listed in catalogue of assorted anonymous scriptures. Its vocabulary and tone are clearly that of the Wei-Wu 魏呉 period. Then, it is also possible that T768 was included in Sengyou's recompilation of Dao'an's catalogue of variant translations from the Liang country 新集安公涼土異經録. Thus, Hayashiya infers that probably the two San hui jing in CSZJJ are indeed the same text. In which case, he argues, the one in the catalogue of assorted anonymous scriptures should be excised, since it is the same item as the San hui jing in tyhe recompiled catalogue of variant translations from the Liang country 新集安公涼土異經録.

Hayashiya states that Fajing and Yancong are not incorrect, in the sense that they did not specify which version of the San hui jing they meant. KYL 開元錄 ascribes the text as an anonymous scripture of the Liang 涼 period 涼世失譯, which should be corrected to an anonymous scripture of the Wei-Wu 魏呉 period. LDSBJ 三寶記 did not list the title at all, which Hayashiya considers a mistake.

Entry author: Atsushi Iseki



[CSZJJ]  Sengyou 僧祐. Chu sanzang ji ji (CSZJJ) 出三藏記集 T2145. — T2145 (LV) 30a15

In Sengyou's Chu sanzang ji ji, T768 is regarded as an anonymous translation, that is to say, it is listed in the "Newly Compiled Continuation of the Assorted List of Anonymous Translations" 新集續撰失譯雜經錄 (juan 4), and is further identified as an excerpt 抄 from some other text:


Entry author: Michael Radich



[Yuan 2019]  Yuan, Wenguang 元文广. “San hui jing de chaozhuan yu chengshu niandai”《三慧經》的抄撰与成书年代考 [A Study of the Copying and Writing of the San hui jing and the Age of Its Composition]. Zongjiaoxue yanjiu 宗教学研究 4 (2019): 144-149.

The San hui jing 三慧經 T768 was recorded in Dao’an’s catalogue of “alternative translations of sūtras in the Liang region” 新集安公涼土異經錄. Sengyou included it in his catalogue of “anonymous miscellaneous sūtras” 新集續撰失譯雜經錄, and stated that it is a compilation 抄. This sūtra was popular during the Liang period. Yuan identifies the following Chinese sources for T768:

1. The Za piyu jing 雜譬喻經 T204 ascribed to Lokakṣema, stories nos. 2 and 12. The T768 version is textually better in quality, and more reasonable in wording. Yuan concludes that T768 copied from T204 and made some modifications.

2. Dharmarakṣa’s Sheng jing 生經 T154: an almost verbatim copy of a story about a man and a wish-fulfilling bottle from heaven; T154(55) (III) 108b13-c1.

3. The story of the blind men and the elephant from the Liu du ji jing 六度集經 T152(89). The two versions have very different wording, but some identical key terms. Thus, Yuan states that the T768 version it is paraphrase of the story from T152. Similarly, the 長壽王 story is also from T152(10).

4. A passage from the Fo yi jing 佛醫經 T793. The beginning of the passage is copied word by word from T793 but the remaining part is paraphrased.

5. A story about a man who loses a pearl in the sea, from Dharmarakṣa’s Xiuxing dao di jing 修行道地經 T606 (Yogācārabhūmi of Saṅgharakṣa), which is similar in content but different in wording.

The latest among these sources is Dharmarakṣa’s Sheng jing 生經 T154, translated in 285. According to Yuan, Dao’an composed his catalogue of Liang translations between 380-385 in Chang’an, and thus, T768 must have been compiled before 385. So T768 should fall in the period 285-385.

Yuan further investigates the terms (or collocations) 貪護, 極美, 疑悔, 浴佛, and 自藏, and traces them in Dharmarakṣa’s translations. [Note: All of these items are rare in the Dharmarakṣa corpus, and each appears a maximum of two or three times --- MR.] The latest that one of these items appears for the first time in a dated Dharmarakṣa text is 浴佛, in the Pu yao jing 普曜經 (Lalitavistara) T186, translated in 308. Thus Yuan concludes that T768 is a Chinese composition, and was produced between 308-385.

Entry author: Lin Qian



[Bie lu (DH mss)]  "Liu Song" Zhongjing bie lu 劉宋眾經別錄, S.2872, P.3747. Dating complex and unclear.

In the "Liu Song" Zhongjing bie lu 劉宋眾經別錄, as represented by a Dunhuang manuscript fragment, P.3747, the following titles are listed, which may correspond to extant texts (in some cases, identification is rather tentative). In contrast to some other titles, which are treated in separate CBC@ entries, these titles are listed in the Bie lu without any further accompanying information (e.g. about ascription or date). Note that the Bie lu includes interlinear notes giving such information, and the scope of application of those interlinear notes is sometimes uncertain: it can be hard to tell whether they apply only to the single title preceding the note, or to a group of titles leading up to the note; and if they apply to a group of titles, how many. Titles in the DH ms. Bie lu are identified by the numbering in Tan (1991), given at the beginning of each line.

8 察微王經一卷 T152(90)
9 佛說一切施王所行檀波羅蜜經一卷 T152(13)
10 佛說薩羅國經一卷 T520
11 佛說長壽王經一卷 T161

12 佛說道神足無極變化經四卷 T816
16 無量清浄經二卷 T361
18 阿育王息壞目因緣經一卷 T2045
21 藥王藥上菩薩觀經 T1161
24 千佛因[囙]緣住經一卷 T426
26 八部佛名一卷 T429
28 賢劫千佛名一卷 T447ab
30 滅罪得福成佛經 T2871?
32 三慧經一卷 T768
37 未曾有因緣經二卷 T754
40 佛說四天王經 T590?
43 樂瓔珞莊嚴方便經一卷 T566
45 佛說仁王般若波羅蜜經一卷 T245
46 佛說遺日摩尼寶經一卷 T350
47 分別業報略經一卷 T723
48 勸發諸王要偈一卷 T1673
49 佛說淨除業障經一卷 T1494
54 觀世樓炭經一卷 T23?
55 雜阿鋡經五十卷 T99
56 雜譬喻經六卷 ?? cf. T204-T208
57 法尚住經 T819
58 婆須蜜菩薩 T1549
60 三歸五戒厭離經一卷 T72
61 分別功德經 T1507
64 權方便經 T565
68 優婆塞戒經七卷 T1488
70 後出阿彌陀佛偈一卷 T373
76 僧伽羅刹經三卷 T194
78 密迹金剛力士經五卷 T310(3)

Many of these same titles are treated as anonymous and extant in CSZJJ fascicle 4. The same is also true of a number of titles not listed here, because the texts in question appear not to be extant.

Texts presently ascribed to Dharmarakṣa and to Zhi Qian (excepting T361) are excluded from this entry, because they are treated in other CBC@ entries.

Entry author: Michael Radich